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ἀπολύωI release 
δικαιοσύνη, ἡrighteousness 
ἐάνifUsed with the subjunctive
εἰifUsed with the indicative
εὐαγγελίζομαιI preach the gospel 
ζάωI live 
ἵναin order thatUsed with the subjunctive
κράζωI shout, cry out 
μαρτυρίαwitness, testimonyCognate: martyr
οἰκία, ἡhouse 
παιδίον, τὀchild 

Subjunctive Mood
  1. Up to this point, we have been looking only at the indicative mood which confirms the reality of the action from the viewpoint of the speaker.
  2. The subjunctive mood indicates potential action.
    1. In English, when we say, I was a richman (that would be indicative)
    2. but to show it is not actual, we say, If I were a richman.... (and thus use the subjunctive form were instead of was)
  3. In the New Testament, there are some rare uses of the subjunctive in the Perfect tense, but the subjunctive is primarily seen in the present and aorist tenses.
  4. The forms of the subjunctive are regular following the form of the present subjunctive of εἰμί.
Subjunctive forms
  1. Present subjunctive of εἰμί
    I may beὦμενwe may be
    ᾖςyou may beἦτεyou may be
    he may beὦσι (ν)they may be
  2. Present Active subjunctive of λύω
    λύωI may looseλύωμενwe may loose
    λύῃςyou may looseλύητεyou may loose
    λύῃhe may looseλύωσι (ν)they may loose
  3. First Aorist Active subjunctive of λύω
    λύσωI might looseλύσωμενwe might loose
    λύσῃςyou might looseλύσητεyou might loose
    λύσῃhe might looseλύσωσι (ν)they might loose
  4. Second Aorist Active subjunctive of λείπω
    λίπωI might looseλίπωμενwe might loose
    λίπῃςyou might looseλίπητεyou might loose
    λίπῃhe might looseλίπωσι (ν)they might loose
  5. The following endings are found in
    1. Present Active Subjunctive
    2. I Aorist Active Subjunctive; II Aorist Active Subjunctive
    3. Aorist Passive Subjunctive
    4. Perfect Active Subjunctive; Perfect Mid/Pass Subjunctive
  6. The following endings are found in
    1. Present Middle/Passive Subjunctive
    2. I Aorist Middle Subjunctive
    3. II Aorist Middle Subjunctive
  7. Notice that the thematic vowel ο/ε has become ω/η
The function of the subjunctive mood
  1. The indicative mood tells us that the action of the verb is real while other moods (subjunctive, optative, and imperative) tell us that the action of the verb is potential.
  2. Examples of the kinds of mood
    1. Indicative mood:
      1. The child runs.
      2. This expresses action which is really taking place.
    2. Subjunctive mood:
      1. If the child runs, he will escape.
      2. This expresses action which is not really taking place, but which is objectively possible.
      3. The child has the ability to run.
      4. Of all the potential moods, the subjunctive is nearest to reality.
    3. Optative mood:
      1. Oh, that the child would run!
      2. This expresses action which is not really taking place, but which is subjectively possible.
      3. It is one step further removed from the action of the subjunctive mood.
    4. Imperative mood:
      1. Run, child.
      2. This expresses action which is not really taking place, but which is volitionally possible.
      3. The action will happen if there is an exertion of the will to produce the action.
      4. It is the furthest removed from the action of the indicative mood.
  3. Time and Action of Moods
    1. All the moods reveal the kind of action
      1. ἐὰν λύω means if I continue loosing or if I keep on loosing.
      2. ἐὰν λύσω means if I loose in one act.
    2. only the indicative mood gives us the time of action.
    3. The time of the action of the subjunctive mood is relative to the time of the main verb.
    4. In the following three sentences, the clause ἵνα εἴπω αὐτῷ is the same. Only the main verb is different.
      1. ἔρχομαι ἵνα εἴπω αὐτῷ. I am coming that I may speak to him.
      2. ἦλθον ἵνα εἴπω αὐτῷ. I came that I might speak to him.
      3. ἐλεύσομαι ἵνα εἴπω αὐτῷ. I shall come that I may speak to him
    5. In all these sentences, the aorist subjunctive εἴπω indicates a single act of speaking.
      1. In the first sentence, the act of speaking is in the present time
      2. In the second, the act of speaking is in the past time
      3. In the third, the act of speaking is in the future time.
    6. So, the subjunctive does not have its own time, it borrows the time from the main verb.
    7. If the subjunctive verb in each of these examples were in the present tense instead of the aorist, then the sentences would express on-going conversation in the present, past, or future time depending on the time of the main verb.
Types of the subjuctive mood
  1. The hortatory subjunctive
    1. Uses the first person plural to exhort others to join us in an action
    2. ἔλθωμεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον. Let us go into the house.
  2. The prohibitive subjunctive
    1. Uses the second person aorist subjunctive (never the present subjunctive)
    2. It expresses a negative command forbidding the beginning of an act and may be translated: don't start, or don't ever.
    3. εἰς πειρασμὸν μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς. Lead us not into temptation or Don't start to lead us into temptation or Don't ever lead us into temptation.
    4. When we look at the imperative mood in the next lesson, we have a prohibition which urges us to stop doing an action.
    5. In John 20:17, we read, λέγει αὐτῇ ̓Ιησοῦς· μή μου ἅπτου, οὔπω γὰρ ἀναβέβηκα πρὸς τὸν πατέρα· Jesus said to her, don't touch me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father.
      1. If the verb ἅπτου is subjunctive, then the sentence would read, Don't start to touch me.
      2. But it is not in the subjunctive.
      3. Some have built a theology whereby the Lord had a special body that shouldn't be touched until He had first presented Himself to the Father.
      4. That view is based on a poor understanding of the verb in this sentence.
      5. The verb is in the imperative meaning, Stop touching me.
      6. In other words, Mary was clinging or clutching the Lord as though she did not want to lose Him again.
  3. The deliberative subjunctive
    1. It is used to express a question which is rhetorical and does not expect an answer
    2. It is also a question which expects an answer in the imperative.
    3. τί εἴπω ὑμῖν; What shall I say to you?
    4. If an answer is expected at all, it will be in the imperative: say this!
  4. Emphatic negation subjunctive
    1. In this construction there is a double negative οὐ μή plus the subjunctive which gives a stronger emphasis than just οὐ plus the indicative.
    2. οὐ μὴ εκφύγωσιν. They shall NOT escape. or They shall NEVER escape. or They shall by no means escape.
  5. The subjunctive of purpose or result
    1. This is a construction where the subordinate clause begins with ἵνα generally to express purpose and is translated, in order that.
    2. ἔρχομαι ἵνα εἴπω αὐτῷ. I am come in order that I may speak to him.
    3. Some grammars will speak of the telic or ecbatic use of a ἵνα clause.
      1. Telic: denotes intention or purpose, thus ἵνα πληρώθη in order that it might be fulfilled
      2. Ecbatic: denotes result or consequence, thus ἵνα πληρώθη so that it was fulfilled
  6. The subjunctive of condition
    1. In this example, the subjunctive is used with the conjunction ἐάν.
    2. It is called the third class conditional use which will be described below.
Conditional sentences
  1. A conditional sentence is one where the subordinate clause presents an "if" statement followed by the main action of the verb.
  2. Think of it as an "if-sentence" with two parts.
    1. The protasis: the if clause
    2. The apodosis: the fulfilment or main clause
  3. There are four classes of conditional sentences
    1. First class condition
      1. It affirms the reality of the condition.
      2. Construction:
        1. Conjunction: εἰ
        2. Protasis: a verb in the indicative mood (and any tense)
        3. Apodosis: almost any mood or tense.
      3. εἰ μαθηταί ἐσμεν τοῦ κυρίου σωθησόμεθα. If we are disciples of the Lord, we shall be saved.
      4. This construction confirms the condition and can also be translated, Since we are disciples of the Lord, we shall be saved.
    2. Second class condition
      1. Expresses a condition which is contrary to fact.
      2. In English, a contrary to fact condition is expressed with the subjunctive mood.
        1. If I were a rich man, I'd live like a king.
        2. In English, "were" is the subjunctive form.
      3. However in Greek, a contrary-to-fact condition is different
      4. Construction:
        1. Conjunction: εἰ
        2. Protasis: indicative mood
        3. Apodosis: the little word ἄν plus the indicative mood
      5. εἰ ἦς ὧδε οὐκ ἄν ἀπέθανεν ὀ ἀδελφός μου. If you had been here, my brother would not have died.
      6. This sentence is contrary to fact because He was not with Lazarus, therefore Lazarus died.
      7. Compare the following
        Contrary to factNOT contrary to fact
        If I were you, I would not goIf he was sick, he did not show it
        If you were older, you would understandIf he was there, I did not see him.
        If this were Sunday, I would be in churchIf the pen was new, why did it not write?
        If he had left yesterday, he would be here todayIf he was mayor, I can understand his action.
        I wish my father were here 
    3. Third class condition
      1. This is the probable future condition.
      2. Construction:
        1. Conjunction: ἐάν
        2. Protasis: subjunctive mood
        3. Apodosis: any form needed
      3. It tells us that something is not really taking place now, but will probably take place in the future.
      4. τοῦτο ποιήσομεν ἐὰν ἐπιτρέπῃ ὁ θεός. This we will do if God permit.
      5. Thus, we are not doing it now, but it is probable that we will do it upon the condition of God's permission.
    4. Fourth class condition
      1. It expresses possible future condition
      2. Construction:
        1. Conjunction: εἰ
        2. Protasis: optative mood
        3. Apodosis: ἄν plus optative mood
      3. There are no examples of this condition in its full form in the New Testament.
      4. ἀλλʼ εἰ καὶ πἀσχοιτε διὰ δικαιοσύνην, μακἀροι ἄν εἴητε. But even if you should suffer for righteousness' sake, you would be happy.
      5. You are not now suffering, and it may be possible, but it is improbable that you will.
      6. It is not a reality now and it has little prospect of becoming a reality.
  4. Summary of the conditions
    1. First class: Since he is studying, he will pass the Greek exam
    2. Second class: If he had studied, he would have passed the Greek exam
    3. Third class: If he studies, he will pass the Greek exam
    4. Fourth class: If he would study, he would pass the Greek exam
    FirstεἰIndicative AnySince
    ThirdἐάνSubjunctive AnyProbable
Translate the following:
  1. ἐὰν εἴπωμεν ὅτι ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ ἔχομεν, ἡ ἀλήθεια οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἡμῖν.
  2. εἰσήλθομεν εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἵνα ἀκούσωμεν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τὸν κηρυσσόμενον.
  3. εἰ αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ ἰδόντος τὸν κύριον πιστεύω αὐτήν.
  4. ἀκούω τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ ἵνα γινώσκω τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ.
  5. εὐαγγελιζώμεθα ἵνα τὰ τέκνα ἀκούσῃ καὶ πιστεύῃ
  6. ἐὰν εἴπωμεν ὅτι κοινωνίαν ἔχομεν μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ μένωμεν ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ, ψευδόμεθα.
  7. οἱ μὴ πιστεύοντες τὸ εὐαγγέλιον οὐ μὴ σωθῶσιν ἐν τῇ δυνάμει αὐτοῦ.
  8. μένωμεν ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ ἵνα ἡ δύναμις τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ βλέπηται;
  9. εἰ ἐκήρυξας τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, οἱ ἂν ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν.
  10. ἐὰν εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ μαθητοῦ, διδάξει ὑμῖν τοὺς λόγους τῆς ζωῆς.
  11. ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἦλθεν ἵνα σώσῃ ἀνθρώπους ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν.
  12. μὴ εἰσέλθῃς εἰς τοὺς οἴκους τῶν πονηρῶν.

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